Reference Resources


Selected translated primary sources

Ambroise. (1976). The crusade of Richard Lion-Heart. (Trans. by M.J. Hubert.) New  York: Octagon.

Ambroise. (2003). The history of the holy war : Ambroise’s estoire de la guerre sainte. (Trans. by Ailes, M., & Barber, M.) Woodbridge: Boydell Press.

Barber, M. and Bate, K., trans. (2010). Letters from the east. Crusaders, pilgrims and settlers in the 12th–13th centuries; the crusade of Frederick Barbarossa. the history of the expedition of the Emperor Frederick and related texts. Farnham : Ashgate.

Bohm, H., ed. (2004). Chronicles of the Crusades: contemporary narratives. London: Kegan Paul.

De Hoveden, R. (1853).  The annals of Roger de Hoveden, comprising the history of England and of other countries of Europe from A. D. 732 to A. D. 1201. (Henry T. Riley, Trans.). London: H. G. Bohn. (Original work published 1201?)

Devizes, R.  (1841) The Chronicle of Richard of Devizes concerning the deeds of Richard the First, King of England. (trans. & ed. by J.A. Giles) London: James Bohn.

Edbury, P.W. ed., trans. (1996)  The Conquest of Jerusalem and the Third Crusade: Sources in Translation. Aldershot: SCOLAR.

Hardy, T.D. (1835). A description of the patent rolls in the Tower of London, to which is added the Itinerary of King John, with prefatory remarks. [Printed by G. Eyre and A. Spottiswoode], [London].

Holden, A.J., ed., (2002). History of William Marshal [L’Histoire de Guillaume le Maréchal. French and English]. London: published by the Anglo-Norman Text Society: Birkbeck College.

Ibn al-Athīr, ʻIzz al-Din. (2007). The chronicle of ibn al-athīr for the crusading period from al-kāmil fi’l-ta’rīkh. (Trans by Richards, D. S.) Aldershot ; Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

Ibn Shaddād, Bahāʼ al-Dīn. (2001) . The rare and excellent history of Saladin, or, al-Nawādir al-Sultaniyya wa’l-Mahasin al-Yusufiyya. (Trans by Richards, D. S.) Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate.

Nicholson, H., & Stubbs, W., trans. (1997). Chronicle of the third crusade : A translation of the itinerarium peregrinorum et gesta regis ricardi [Itinerarium peregrinorum et gesta Regis Ricardi.]. Aldershot, Hants, England ; Brookfield, Vt.: Ashgate.

Stenton, D., ed. (1917, 1968 reprint). The Great roll of the pipe for the fifth year of the reign of King Richard I, Michaelmas 1193 (Pipe Roll 39). Nendeln: Kraus Reprint.

Walmsley, J., ed./trans. (2006). Widows, Heirs, and Heiresses in the Late Twelfth Century: The Rotuli de Dominabus et Pueris et Puellis. Tempe, AZ: ACMRS.

William of Newburgh. Histories. Books I-V. Medieval Sourcebook. 1999. (Translations of Newburgh’s Historia de rebus anglicis.)


Appleby, J. T. (1959). John, king of England (1st ed. ed.). New York: Knopf.

Barber, R. (1964). Henry Plantagenet. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Littlefield.

Gillingham, J. (1973). The life and times of Richard I. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.

Gillingham, J. (1978). Richard the Lionheart. New York: Times Books.

Gillingham, J. (2002). Richard I. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Henderson, P. (1959). Richard coeur de lion; a biography (1 American ed.). New York: W.W. Norton.

Hosler, J.D. (2007). Henry II: a Medieval Soldier at War, 1147-1189. Leiden;Boston: Brill.

Kelly, A. R. (1950). Eleanor of Aquitaine and the four kings. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Lloyd, A. (1972). The maligned monarch : A life of King John of England (1st ed.). Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday.

Lloyd, A. (1973). King John. Newton Abbot Eng.: David & Charles.

Miller, D. (2003). Richard the Lionheart: the mighty crusader. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.

Marson, Charles L. (1901). Hugh, Bishop of Lincoln: a short story of one of the makers of Medieval England. London : Edward Arnold.

Morris, M. (2015).  King John: Treachery and Tyranny in Medieval England: the road to Magna Carta. New York: Pegasus.

Morrison, T., Turner, R. V. “Eleanor of Aquitaine.” Journal of the Australian Early Medieval Association, 7, 166.

Norgate, K. (1902). John Lackland. London: Macmillan & Co.

Painter, Sidney. The Reign of King John. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2020. Project MUSEdoi:10.1353/book.71692.

Soden, I. (2013). Ranulf de Blondeville: the First English Hero. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Amberley Publishing.

Turner, R. V. (2009). Eleanor of Aquitaine: queen of France, queen of England. New Haven Conn. ; London: Yale University Press.

Turner, R. V. (2000). The reign of Richard Lionheart, ruler of the Angevin empire 1189-1199. Harlow, England : Longman.

Vincent, N. (2019). King John: medieval monster. On HistoryExtra podcast,

Weir, A. (2000; 1999). Eleanor of Aquitaine : a life (1 American ed.). New York: Ballantine Books.


Appleby, John T. (1965). England without Richard, 1189-1199. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Baldwin, J.W. (2010). Paris, 1200. English version. (Originally published in French, 2006, by Éditions Flammarion, department Aubier.) Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Barber, R. (1970).  The Knight & chivalry. Harlow: Longmans.

Barker, J.R.V. (1986). The Tournament in England, 1100–1400. Woodbridge: Boydell Press.

Bartlett, R. (2000). England under the Norman and Angevin kings, 1075-1225. Oxford : Clarendon Press.

Brears, C. (1927). A Short History of Lincolnshire. London: A. Brown & Sons, Ltd.

Briscoe, J.P. & Lever, D’Arcy. (1888).  A concise history of Nottingham Castle; and A Guide to the art gallery and museum. Nottingham: Carrick & Young.

Brown, J.H. (1878). Historical sketch of Nottingham Castle. Nottingham: printed by Thomas Forman and Sons.

Brown, R.A. (1954, 2004). Allen Brown’s English Castles. Woodbridge, Suffolk: the Boydell Press

Chevedden, P.E.  (2000). “The Invention of the Counterweight Trebuchet: a Study in Cultural Diffusion.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers, no. 54. Washington, D.C. : Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection.

Cooper, T.P. (1911). The History of the Castle of York. London: Elliot Stock.

Coredon, C. (2004). A Dictionary of Medieval terms and phrases. Cambridge, UK : D.S. Brewer.

Ditchfield, P.H. (1972 reprint). The Victoria History of Berkshire. London: Published for the University of London, Institute of Historical Research.

Drage, C. (1989). Nottingham Castle: a Place Full Royal. Nottingham: The Thoroton Society of Nottinghamshire.

Duggan, A. (1962). Growing Up in 13th Century England. New York: Pantheon.

Evans, Mark L. (2001). “Battle of Arsuf: climatic clash of cross and crescent,” in Military History, 18:3.

Everhard, J.A.  (2000). Brittany and the Angevins: Province and Empire, 1158-1203. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Foster, C.W., Longley, T. (1924). The Lincolnshire Domesday and the Lindsey Survey. Tr. & ed. by Foster and Longley. Publications of the Lincoln Record Society, v. 19. Horncastle: printed for the Lincoln Record Society.

Foulds, T. (1991).  “The Siege of Nottingham Castle in 1194” in Transactions of the Thoroton Society of Nottinghamshire, volume 95.

Gies, J., & Gies, F. (2010). Life in a Medieval Castle. New York: HarperCollins.

Gillingham, J. (1984). The Angevin empire. London: Edward Arnold.

Given-Wilson, C. (1987). The English nobility in the late Middle Ages: the fourteenth-century political community. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Harvey, P.D.A. (1990). “Non-agrarian activities in twelfth-century English estate surveys,” in England in the twelfth century: proceedings of the 1988 Harlaxton Symposium, ed. by D. Williams. Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK : Boydell Press.

Hine, T.C. (1876). Nottingham, its castle, a military fortress, a royal palace, a ducal mansion a blackened ruin, a museum and gallery of art. London: Hamilton, Adams & Co.

“The borough of Wallingford: Introduction and castle.” A History of the County of Berkshire, vol. 3. (1923).

Holmes, E. T. (1952). Daily living in the twelfth century based on the observations of Alexander Neckham in London and Paris. Univ of Wisconsin Press.

Hughes, G. (2006). An encyclopedia of swearing : The social history of oaths, profanity, foul language, and ethnic slurs in the english-speaking world. Armonk, N.Y: M.E. Sharpe.

Huscroft, R. (2005). Ruling England, 1042-1217. Harlow, UK: Pearson Longman.

Jacobsen, T. L. “King’s gold: A knights templar mystery.” Library Journal, 136(16), 62-62.

Kaeuper, R.W. & Kennedy, E. (1996). The “Book of Chivalry” of Geoffroi de Charny. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Landon, L. (1935). The Itinerary of King Richard I with studies on certain matters of interest connected with his reign. London: printed for the Pipe Roll Society by J.W. Ruddock & Sons.

Marilyn, H. 1., & Hopkins, M., 1950-. (2007). The enigma of the knights templar : their history and mystical connections. New York : St. Paul, MN: New York : Disinformation Co. ; St. Paul, MN : Distributed in USA and Canada by Consortium Book Sales and Distribution.

Meirion-Jones, G. & Jones, M. (eds.) (1993). Manorial domestic buildings in England and Northern France. London: Society of Antiquaries of London.

Mertes, K. (1988). The English Noble Household, 1250-1600. Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell.

Morgan, D. O. (1982). Medieval historical writing in the Christian and Islamic worlds. London: School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.

Mortimer, I. (2008). The time traveler’s guide to medieval England: a handbook for visitors to the fourteenth century. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Nicholson, H. J. (2010). The knights templar : A brief history of the warrior order. Philadelphia ; London : London: Philadelphia ; London : Running Press ; London : Robinson.

Nicolle, D. (2007). Crusader warfare. London ; New York: Hambledon Continuum.

Nicolle, D. & C. Hook (2006). The Third Crusade 1191: Richard the Lionheart, Saladin, and the struggle for Jerusalem. Oxford: Osprey Publishing.

Page, W. (1906). The Victoria history of the county of Lincoln. London: A. Constable.

Platts, G. (1985). Land and people in medieval Lincolnshire: History of Lincolnshire IV. Lincoln: History of Lincolnshire Committee, for the Society of Linsolnshire History and Archaeology.

Rogers, A. (1970). A History of Lincolnshire: with maps and pictures. Henley-on-Thames: Darwen Finlayson, Ltd.

Rogers, R. (1992). Latin siege warfare in the twelfth century. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Rudorff, R. (1974). The Knights and their world. London: Cassell.

Sancha, S. (1982). The Luttrell Village: Country Life in the Middle Ages. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell.

Sawyer, P. (1998). Anglo-Saxon Lincolnshire: History of Lincolnshire III. Lincoln: History of Lincolnshire Committee for the Society for Lincolnshire History and Archaeology.

Spufford, P. (2002). Power and profit: the merchant in medieval Europe. New York: Thames & Hudson.

Sutherland, D. (2010). In Koltko-Rivera M. E. (Ed.), Cracking codes & cryptograms for dummies. Hoboken, N.J. : Wiley.

Thurley, S. (2004). Lost buildings of Britain. London: Viking Press.

Ward, J.C. (1992). English noblewomen in the later Middle Ages. London: Longman.

Wood, M. (1994). The English Mediaeval House. London: Studio Editions.

Wright, J.K. (1925). The Geographical lore of the time of the crusades.  New York : American Geographic Society.

Wright, James (2016). A Palace for our kings. Triskele Publishing.

Sexuality in the Middle Ages

Berkowitz, E. (2012). Sex and punishment: four thousand years of judging desire. Berkeley: Counterpoint.

Boswell, J. (1981). Christianity, social tolerance, and homosexuality: gay people in Western Europe from the beginning of the Christian era to the fourteenth century. Chicago : University of Chicago Press.

Bullough, V.L. & Brundage, J. (1982). Sexual practices & the medieval Church. Buffalo: Prometheus Books.

“Civil partnership, medieval style: in the days when same-sex marraige was a Christian rite.” posted 11 May 2012 at

Halsall, P. (1988). The Experience of Homosexuality in the Middle Ages.

Johansson, W. & Percy, W.A. (2009) Homosexuality in the Middle Ages.

Karras, R.M. (2005) Sexuality in medieval Europe: doing unto others. New York: Routledge.

Payer, P.J.  (1993). The Bridling of desire: views of sex in the later Middle Ages. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Same-Sex Relations in the Middle Ages.” posted July 3, 2011. (this is a bibiliography of works on the topic).

various articles on Same-Sex Relations in the Middle Ages on 

Later periods
Flood, A. (2021). “Highwayman’s 1750 confessions reveal ‘unusual’ ambivalence about gay sex,” from The Life of Thomas Munn, in The Guardian,